What is Solenoid And Solenoid Valve?
Solenoid is a coil of insulated or enameled wire wrapped around a solid or hollow shape made of iron or steel or any other ferromagnetic material. The material the coil is wrapped around is called the core material. When current flows through the coil of wire, it exhibits electromagnetism properties and the magnetic flux or magnetic field is induced around the coil as well as the core material. Thus, any other material held around the solenoid through which the electric current passes experiences magnetism.
If the core is hollow, the magnetic field is generated in free space, and in the case of solid core, the magnetic field is generated around the core and coil. Thus, when the current passes through the solenoid coil, it acts as an electromagnet, and when the current is drawn, it loses its electromagnet feature.
What is Solenoid Valve?
Solenoid valves are used to control the flow of liquid or gas (called liquids) in the pipeline or in a specific process. The solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve consisting of a solenoid coil and a piston connected to the valve body. In solenoid valves, the core around which the insulated coil is wound is hollow. In this hollow part, there is a piston or piston-like round shaft that can move up and down in the hollow space. The piston is attached to the spring that holds it in place and controls its movement (see figure below for various parts of the solenoid valve).
When current passes through the coil, it is energized and the magnetic flux develops around the coil, providing the movement of the piston. When current is removed from the coil, it is de-energized and the magnetic flux is also removed.
The piston can move from top to bottom and vice versa to the ends, or move in small increments according to the current flowing through the coil.
Ordinary valves used to control the flow of fluid consist of the handle connected to the valve stem. The body of the valve is connected to the disc called orifice that controls the opening amount of the valve. When the handle of the valve is manually turned, the body of the valve as well as the disc moves up or down, allowing the valve to be opened.
Solenoid valves have typical valve parts such as stem, disc and stem, but no valve stem. The valve body is connected to the plunger of the solenoid valve. When current flows through the coil, the plunger moves through the cavities causing movement of the valve body and controls the opening of the bore.
The various parts of the solenoid valve are shown in the figure below. Also shown is one of the most widely used solenoid valves readily available on the market.